中医古籍中描述药物剂量单位的演变?(附简表)

贾大夫是真医生 2022-03-29 14:56:05

在中医临床学习中,经常会阅读古代典籍,不同时代的典籍记载所用药物的剂量与临床疗效密切相关


例如:有时候需要30g才起效的药物,典籍中记载的单位和“g”不同,这时不知单位如何换算,又不敢用大剂量,结果导致的就是用药无效。我们现在接触的单位换算很简单且比较统一,但是古代历朝历代的度量衡与现在皆有不同。那么这就会对我们正在进行的工作、学习、研究带来一些障碍。尤其是刚刚入门的医学生,与广大的中医爱好者在药剂单位的换算产生了疑惑


大家在阅读古代中医典籍时,如果遇到药剂单位换算障碍时,可以先看此书的作者或成书时间是什么年代朝代的,然后根据年代朝代在下表中找寻相对应的度量衡,来确定换算完的剂量是多少。现将历代度量衡制演变表搜集整理分享予大家,希望有所帮助。


因为资料来源于各处,难免会有错漏,恳请大家指正勘误。若有想完善补充者,也可留言给我,在之后更新时可共同署名,我们也会逐渐完善。谢谢大家!


中国历代衡制演变简表

时代

衡制

统一换算(克)

战国

楚:

1斤 =16两,  1两 = 24铢

赵:

1石 =120斤,  1斤 = 16两,  1两 = 24铢

魏:

1镒 =10釿,     1釿 = 20两

秦:

1石 = 4钧,     1钧 = 30斤

1斤 = 16两,     1两 = 24铢

1斤 =  250, 一两 =15.6

1铢 = 0.65

1石 = 30000, 1斤 = 250

1两 = 15.6, 1铢 =0.65

1镒 =315

1釿 =31.5

1石 = 30360, 1钧 = 7590

1斤 = 253, 1两 =15.8

1铢 = 0.69

1石 = 4钧, 1钧 = 30斤

1斤 = 16两, 1两 = 24铢

1石 = 30360, 1钧 = 7590

1斤 = 253, 1两 = 15.8

1铢 = 0.69

1石 = 4钧,     1钧 =30斤

1斤 =16两,     1两 =24铢

1石 =4钧,     1钧 =30斤

1斤 =16两,     1两 = 24铢

1石 =29760, 1钧 = 7440

1斤 =248, 1两 = 15.5, 1铢 = 0.65

1石 = 26400, 1钧 = 6600

1斤 = 220, 1两 =13.8, 1铢 =0.57

三国

1石 = 4钧, 1钧 = 30斤

1斤 = 16两, 1两 = 24铢

1石 = 26400, 1钧 = 6600

1斤 = 220, 1两 = 13.8, 1铢 = 0.57

两晋

1石 = 4钧, 1钧 = 30斤

1斤 = 16两, 1两 = 24铢

1石 = 26400, 1钧 = 6600

1斤 = 220, 1两 = 13.8, 1铢 = 0.57

南北朝

1石 = 4钧, 1钧 = 30斤

1斤 = 16两, 1两 = 24铢

梁、陈:1斤 = 220, 南齐:1斤 = 330,

北魏、北齐:1斤 = 440,北周:1斤 = 660


1石 = 4钧, 1钧 = 30斤

1斤 = 16两, 1两 = 24铢

大:

1石 = 79320, 1钧 = 19830,

1斤 = 661, 1两 = 41.3

小:

1石 = 26400, 1钧 = 6600,

1斤 = 220, 1两 = 13.8


1石 = 4钧, 1钧 = 30斤

1斤 = 16两, 1两 = 24铢


1石 = 79320, 1斤 = 661

1两 = 41.3, 1钱 = 4.13

1分 = 0.41

1石 = 120斤, 1斤 = 16两

1两 = 10钱, 1钱 = 10分

1石 = 75960, 1斤 = 633, 1两 = 40

1钱 = 4, 1分 = 0.4

1石 = 120斤, 1斤 = 16两

1两 = 10钱, 1钱 = 10分

1石 = 75960, 1斤 = 633, 1两 = 40

1钱 = 4, 1分 = 0.4

1石 = 120斤, 1斤 = 16两

1两 = 10钱, 1钱 = 10分

1石 = 70800, 1斤 = 590, 1两 = 36.9,

1钱 = 3.69, 1分 = 0.37

1石 = 120斤, 1斤 = 16两

1两 = 10钱, 1钱 = 10分

1石 = 70800, 1斤 = 590, 1两 = 36.9,

1钱 = 3.69, 1分 = 0.37


中国历代量制演变简表

时代

量制

统一换算(毫升)

战国

:

1 = 10, 1 = 4

1 = 4, 1 = 4

:

1 = 10, 1 = 10

:

1 =5

三晋:

1 = 10, 1 = 10


1 = 10, 1 = 10

1 = 20000, 1 = 2000, 1 = 200

1 = 10, 1 = 10, 1 = 10

1 = 2, 1 = 5, 1 = 4

1 =20000, 1 = 2000, 1 = 200

1 = 20, 1 = 10, 1 = 2, 1 = 0.5

三国两晋

1 = 10, 1 = 10, 1 = 10

1 =20450, 1 = 2045, 1 = 204.5

1 = 20.45

南北朝

1 = 10, 1 = 10, 1 = 10

1 =30000, 1 = 3000, 1 = 300

1 = 30

1 = 10, 1 = 10, 1 = 10

开皇:

1 = 60000, 1 =6000, 1 =600

1 = 60

大业:

1 =20000, 1 =2000, 1 =200

1 = 20

1 = 10, 1 = 10, 1 = 10

大:

1 = 60000, 1 =6000, 1 =600

1 = 60

小:

1 =20000, 1 =2000, 1 =200

1 = 20

1 = 2斛,1 = 5, 1 = 10 1 = 10

1 = 670001 =33500, 1 = 6700,

1 = 6701 = 67

1 = 2斛,1 = 5, 1 = 10 1 = 10

1 = 950001 = 47500, 1 = 9500,

1 = 9501 = 95

1 = 2斛,1 = 5, 1 = 10 1 = 10

1 = 1000001 = 50000, 1 =10000,

1 = 10001 = 100

1 = 2斛,1 = 5, 1 = 10 1 = 10

1 = 1000001 = 50000, 1 =10000,

1 = 10001 = 100


中国历代度制演变简表

时代

度制

统一换算(厘米)

1 = 10,1 = 10

1 = 15.8, 1 = 1.58

战国

1 = 10, 1 = 10,1 = 10

1 = 231,1 = 23.1,1 =2.31

1 = 0.231

 

1 = 10, 1 = 10,

1 = 10, 1 = 10

1 = 2310, 1 = 231

1 = 23.1, 1 = 2.31

1 = 0.231

1 = 10, 1 = 10,

1 = 10, 1 = 10

1 = 2310, 1 = 231

1 = 23.1, 1 = 2.31

1 = 0.231

三国

1 = 10, 1 = 10,1 = 10

1 = 242, 1 = 24.2

1 = 2.42, 1 = 0.242

西晋

1 = 10, 1 = 10, 1 = 10

1 = 242, 1 = 24.2

1 = 2.42, 1 = 0.242

东晋及十六国

1 = 10, 1 = 10, 1 = 10

1 = 245, 1 = 24.5

1 = 2.45, 1 = 0.245

南北朝

1 = 10, 1 = 10, 1 = 10

1 = 245, 1 = 24.5

1 = 2.45, 1 = 0.245

1 = 296, 1 = 29.6

1 = 2.96, 1 = 0.296

1 = 10, 1 = 10,1 = 10

1 = 296, 1 = 29.6

1 = 2.96, 1 = 0.296

1 = 10, 1 = 10, 1 = 10

小尺:

1 = 300, 1 = 30

1 = 3, 1 = 0.3

大尺:

1 = 360, 1 = 36

1 = 3.6, 1 = 0.36

宋元

1 = 10, 1 = 10,1 = 10

1 = 312, 1 = 31.2

1 = 3.12, 1 = 0.312

1 = 10, 1 = 10, 1 = 10

裁衣尺:

1 = 34, 1 = 3.4

量地尺:

1 = 32.7, 1 = 3.27

营造尺:

1 = 32, 1 = 3.2

1 = 10, 1 = 10, 1 = 10

裁衣尺:

1 = 355, 1 = 35.5, 1 = 3.55

量地尺:

1 = 345, 1 = 34.5, 1 = 3.45

营造尺:

1 = 320, 1 = 32, 1 = 3.2


现代称药重量单位换算表

1两=10钱=50克,1钱=5克

 

古代计时单位是:时,更,点,刻。

 

时也称时辰,用12地支表示,每个时辰等于现在的两个小时。古时与现代时对照

23:00 - 01:00 子时

01:00 - 03:00 丑时

03:00 - 05:00 寅时

05:00 - 07:00 卯时

07:00 - 09:00 辰时

09:00 - 11:00 巳时

11:00 - 13:00 午时

13:00 - 15:00 未时

15:00 - 17:00 申时

17:00 - 19:00 酉时

19:00 - 21:00 戌时

21:00 - 23:00 亥时

 

夜里的时间还分为更和点。一夜等分为五更,一更也等于现在的两小时。

一更: 19:00 - 21:00

二更: 21:00 - 23:00

三更: 23:00 - 01:00

四更: 01:00 - 03:00

五更: 03:00 - 05:00

 

更分为五点,古时一点合现在24分钟,例如古代人说五更一点就是指夜间3点24分。

 

古人还将一昼夜分为100刻,一刻合现在14分24秒


余待大家继续补全:)



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